Narus lies in a semi arid region which stretches right from Uganda, Kenya and South Sudan to Ethiopia. It is surrounded by pastoralist tribes that cross the borders and attack the Toposas because of cattle raids and this causes massive killings of the children. Women, children and young men are the most affected. Most of the attacks are during the dry season when there is no water and pasture for both animals and humans. The competition for the limited resources brings about migration to safer places where they meet their deaths. Kapoeta East County is also faced by tribal conflicts due to cattle raids from the different pastoralist tribes that exist in this part of the country. The soils have no vegetation cover and this makes them exposed to direct heat from the sun and rain. So the water runoff is high during the rainy season. The people of Narus are predominately pastoralists though they practice some form of agriculture and grow one type of crop that is sorghum which is harvested piece meal and does not meet the family food security needs. Climatic change adaptation is difficult in this kind of situation where even the shrubs that are growing are ct down for firewood charcoal and as poles for sale and construction of shelters. The men are only looking after cattle and the defense to their families but are not engaged in production in any way. There is no comparison of the Toposas with any other tribe since it is only this single tribe living in Narus. Narus is also a semi arid region which requires a lot of techniques to improve their livelihoods. The amount of rainfall in this area is very little thus calling for planting dry season crops like cassava, pigeon peas, pumpkins and cow peas for the community to adapt to climatic change. The government is far away from the people therefore accessing government services like health, education, agriculture, water and infrastructure is difficult. The roads are impassable and this is a hindrance to development. The scarcity of water makes it difficult for the people to cultivate other crops. According to the people the area sometimes receives rain only 4 times a year.
A village sun scorched, is evident that drought is obvious in this area there is always hunger.From own observation and information from the agricultural department rains start in August that is the most reliable rain but in April or May these are false rainsthat many people do not rely on. The serious rain reduction in this area is due to deforestation and overgrazing which leads to soil degradation through erosion. Families migrate due to rampant cattle raids and lack of water and pastures for their animals. With a population of 27,000 people without proper settlementsmigration is the order of the day. Drought in this part of the country becomes a source of conflict as the Turkanas attack the Toposas and the Toposas also do the same. The government presence is not felt by the community. The RRC cannot stand single handedly to support these communities. Dry winds in this area during the dry season also carry away the top soil causing erosion. There is no vegetation cover to protect the soil, therefore incase of rain the runoff is high and thus rich soils are washed away.
The scarcity of clean safe drinking water is one of the problems faced by the people of Narus. This coupled with the high market prices of the materials for the rehabilitation of the boreholes is very high and this has caused the delay in completing the rehabilitation. The people have to trek long distances in search of pasture and water for both animals and human consumption.
Narus community is partly relief dependent and practice subsistence farming where they depend on one type of crop or practice mono cropping. They keep cattle and men marry many women. The cattle are reared on free range system. There is no selective breeding as the animals are left to mix. The community has large animal population which competes with humans for water.
Women are faced with problems especially during the dry season as they shoulder the burden of production, taking care of families and other domestic work. Women are subjected to less profitable enterprises to support their families like sale of firewood and charcoal.
The primary objective of this project is to build a resilient community that can be able to bounce in an advent of disaster using its own capacity and resources.
4.1 Specific objectives of the project
·Improve skills of CMDRR committees and community leaders in participatory disaster risk assessment and management.
·Reduce the risk of drought and conflict
·Reduce the risks of cattle raiding among the youths
·Enhance capacity on livelihood diversification in income generating activities
·Using sports as a tool for peaceful co-existence among the different ethnicgroups in Narus Payam, Kapoeta East County.
In Partnership with Cordaid, RAAH was able to receive fundingand the following activities were accomplished:-
·Rapid assessment of the water rehabilitation process was conducted in early February by a team from National Organization consortium (NOC) member organization called Christian Agenda for Development (CAD). The assessment was conducted in Narus Payam Nacipo Boma and Natinga 84 kms away from Narus. The boreholes were assessed and most of them had poor platforms constructed and also did not have troughs where animals can drink from during the drought. The assessment was conducted on the 12thof February 2015 and 4 boreholes were visited in Natinga and 8 in Narus where only one borehole was found in Nacipo village.The main objective of the assessment was to establish the status of the boreholes in Narus and Natinga. Most of them were found functional but lacked the trough and the water and sanitation management committees. The assessment was conducted jointly by 7 people 3 from RAAH, 2 from water department and 2 from CAD RAAH’s partner from Juba
·Emergency response through redesigning and rehabilitation of Boreholes.
Designing sign posts indicating CORDAID and RAAH at the project site
·Three Sensitization Meetings were held on the principles of CMDRR project. The first sensitization meeting was conducted in Nacipo prior to launching. This was to bring together the community leaders and the representatives, government line departments’ office of the commissioner, organized forces to understand CMDRR that was to be launched in their locality.
Sensitization meeting held prior to launching of CMDRR in Narus
·Official launching was conducted in October on the 25th2014 in Narus Town. The occasion was colorful as it is seen from the launching pictures. The office of the commissioner was invited, NGOs, State ministries from Torit. The launching was also attended by a representative from Cordaid Juba office. Across section of people attended ranging from school children, chiefs, heads of departments, judges, religious leaders, traders and the community members attended.
·The launching was intended to create awareness of the CMDRR pilot project in Narus County
·Recruitment of Narus CMDRR staff was conducted in the mid November 2014. This was done by RAAH leadership in Torit and thereafter the people were sent for skills training by Cordaid in Torit in early December 2014. Two people were recruited as full time CMDRR facilitators. a driver and support staff who contribute 100% of their time to the project. The project managerfor Maridi and the Executive Director of RAAH were also to contribute to Narus project. After the recruitment, a 5 day orientation and planning exercise was held in Juba office by the Executive Director of RAAH. This included the senior management of RAAH and the newly recruited staff. This meeting was intended to bring together the management staff of the organization, plan and also orient the newly recruited staff of the organization.
·Procurement of office supplies. After the planning meeting office supplies were procured which included stationeries- reams of paper, masking tapes, mark pens, pens, flip charts, office tables, office chairs, cartridges, correction pens, office fans, generator, utensils, beds and beddings. This included 2 computers, 2 generators, 1 motorcycle and manilar papers.
·Office set was done in January by acquiring office space and equipping it with furniture.
·From23rd to 26th of February 2015 the CMDRR staff visited Natinga Payam. They were also drilled through the importance of CMDRR committee, Why it is community managed, guidelines to CMDRR committees, why CMDRR, leadership qualities and the use of water. A CMDRR committee was formed through voting show of hands. Candidates were selected by nomination of 3 names and seconded from the assembly. Amember was suggested for a position and was to be seconded by another member from the assembly. After the 3 names were suggested, voting was conducted by show of hands. The electoral commission tallied the results and announced them to the assembly. After feeling all the positions the CMDRR committees was pronounced formed and 20 members were eligible for voting.A representation of the committee by the youth, elderly, women and disabled was made. The chiefs of the areas were given the advisory role. They were also trained in the roles of a leader. The CMDRR committees which comprised of 30 people, 5 government staff were also trained on peace building principles and action. This was done to enhance social cohesion and security among the prone communities of Nacipo that are conflict affected. The criteria for committee formation was
·One round table for over 65 people was organized to dialogue in fostering trust and conflict management in conflicting parties in August 2015. These led to the establishment of two clubs of ambassadors of peace and 3 sports teams and are now functional. 36 pairs of sportswear, 12 playing boots, stockings, 6 balls and 3 whistles were bought for the teams. And above all 2 trainers were hired to train the three teams. The 3 youth club in the area by strengthening the Elders Councils. The CMDRR committees have established working relationships with existing government structures to enhance good working relationships.
Out of the 500 targeted number for livelihood diversification 100 have been trained in vegetable production and cassava and sweet potato multiplication to facilitate the production, hoes, pangas, rakes, wheel barrows, shovels, watering cans, measuring tapes and vegetable kits have been purchased and distributed to the CMDRR groups
- One sensitization meeting was conducted before the launching of the CMDRR project.
- Over 250 people were sensitized on CMDRR and Conflict transformation.
- 2 CMDRR committees and 5 government representatives trained
- The CMDRR project was officially launched and over 250 people attended the launching
- Two CMDRR committees were formedwith a membership of 40 people
- 4DRR workshops were conducted
- 40 CMDRR committee membersand 5 government staff trained in peace building principles and practice DRR measures
- One rapid assessment was conducted in both Natinga and Nacipo on the status of the boreholes and over 10 boreholes were assessed.
- 9 bore holes have been rehabilitated out of the 8 with water troughs where animals can drink put in place.
- 100 people have improved their capacities
- At least 500 people have access to multiple use of water.
- One water catchment is being constructed.
- 15 members have enhanced and diversified livelihood options.
- 150 conflict affected communities have enhanced their social cohesion and security.
- 1 round table of over 65 people has been organized.
- 2 ambassadors of peace clubs have been formed and 3 sports teams
- Sports wears have been purchased and distributed
- Seeds and r tools have been purchased and a demonstration for seed multiplication set up.
- Sports peace building initiatives in the area have been strengthened.
- Working relations have improved
- Procurement of office supplies, 2 motor bike, 2 computers, 2 generators and recruitment of the CMDRR facilitators for Narus office has been completed.
- 1 ¼ feddans of cassava short maturing and drought resistant variety plantedand ¼ feddans of sweet potato disease resistant varies planted.
The CMDRR project in Narus has yet started but people have started embracing it. The communities are showing a positive attitude towards the project. They are requesting for seeds for planting.
·100 people in Narus have improved their capacities to identify, prioritize and manage locally appropriate measures and developed risk reduction measures.
·50drought and conflict affected households in Nacipo Boma in Narus Payam have increased their access to food and multiple use of water for immediate life saving and livelihood protection. This is seen through the number of people who are having access to clean water and can afford a meal a day.
·The attitude of the people towards CMDRR is changing though the level of understanding is still low.
·The relationship between the community and the facilitators is improving as now the community is aware that the organization is not to offer handouts but to train them on how they can resist disasters.
·The leadership ofNarus is working hand in hand with the implementing organization to see to it that water is in place and communities embrace the livelihood options in the area.
·The community has started understanding the dangers of cattle raiding, migration and conflict.
Rural Action Aganst Hunger (RAAH) was founded in exile in 2004, as a relief and development national organization focusing on the plight of the Sudanese people behind the by then rebel Sudan People’s liberation Army and movement (SPLA/M). During the implementation of the comprehensive peace agreement (CPA) signed in 2005, RAAH became officially registered in 2008 with the Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs and by then SRRC. RAAH was unanimously voted in as a chair to the national NGO by the NGO forum in Juba, and the Executive director guided the functions of the growing NNGO forum to its height as from the 2009- August, 2012. In 2013 the Executive Director also was nominated the head of the humanitarian country team on South Sudan up to date. RAAH has a 5-member board of trustees (BOT) which is the policy making body of the organization, that conducts its business annually. Under the BOT is the program management committee, which includes program office, accounts and Subject matter specialists’ representatives. Under this is the support staff like drivers, security guards, catering and casual labor, all these sectors fall under the administration of the Executive director who ensures that program goals and objectives are achieved, and adherence to organizational policies is upheld, and that staffs are managed in accordance with People in Aid principals. RAAH is also a member of a 5 National NGOs consortium in Juba. These NGOs have come together to strengthen, scope and quality of service provision in South Sudan. The organization also benefitted from Danida-Netherland funded capacity training on transition from emergency to development 2010/2011 projects. The funds were released by Danida in recognition of the consortium and their quest to improve management skills in development oriented projects. This training was for top and middle managers, project leaders, logisticians and accountants. The funds were disbursed through an international NGO partner called International Aid Services (IAS) based in Khartoum. Apparently the organization has the following senior staff:
·2 CMDRR programme officer
·3 CMDRR facilitators
Others include 2 drivers, 2 guards, 3 cleaners, 3 catering staff and 2 volunteers.
RAAH operates in Western, Central and Eastern Equatoria with the head office in Juba. The main sectors include Food security and livelihoods, agro-forestry, gender support projects, emergency relief, skills training, CMDRR pilot project and seed production.
RAAH has partners like IAS, FAO, Cordaid, Malteser International, Agra and government, because it implemented a government funded project in 2009/2010 on Sudan Recovery Fund (SRF)
Some of the realized capacity building activities in relation to the organization were training of CMDRR resource persons through workshops. The result of the capacity building efforts undertaken in relation to organizational stand now are training of the CMDRR committees, formation and building the capacity of the CMDRR committees and training in livelihoods. It is also planning to promote seed multiplication of cereals and root crops.
The organization has been able to execute its programs with the help of resources mobilized from the donors and the 5 CMDRR trained personnel under the supervision of the director who had two trainingsinDM/RM concepts, principles and practices, facilitating CMDRR methods and process, identification of communitiesfor piloting CMDRR, facilitation of community participatory disaster risk analysis, facilitation of DRR measures, Making CMDRR sustainable in the communities, plan of action, course synthesis and evaluation and Self Help Group Approach for economic, social and political empowerment of the most vulnerable communities. The trained personnel are able to train the identified communities.